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Article Comparison - Elements of Crimes of the International Criminal Court [*]

Article 8 (2) (b) (xxi)
War crime of outrages upon personal dignity


1. The perpetrator humiliated, degraded or otherwise violated the dignity of one or more persons.[49]

2. The severity of the humiliation, degradation or other violation was of such degree as to be generally recognized as an outrage upon personal dignity.

3. The conduct took place in the context of and was associated with an international armed conflict.

4. The perpetrator was aware of factual circumstances that established the existence of an armed conflict.


[49] For this crime, “persons” can include dead persons. It is understood that the victim need not personally be aware of the existence of the humiliation or degradation or other violation. This element takes into account relevant aspects of the cultural background of the victim.