Viadrina Logo
Jura Logo
Foto Logo

Article Comparison - Elements of Crimes of the International Criminal Court [*]

Article 8 (2) (c) (ii)
War crime of outrages upon personal dignity


1. The perpetrator humiliated, degraded or otherwise violated the dignity of one or more persons.[57]

2. The severity of the humiliation, degradation or other violation was of such degree as to be generally recognized as an outrage upon personal dignity.

3. Such person or persons were either hors de combat, or were civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel taking no active part in the hostilities.

4. The perpetrator was aware of the factual circumstances that established this status.

5. The conduct took place in the context of and was associated with an armed conflict not of an international character.

6. The perpetrator was aware of factual circumstances that established the existence of an armed conflict.


[57] For this crime, “persons” can include dead persons. It is understood that the victim need not personally be aware of the existence of the humiliation or degradation or other violation. This element takes into account relevant aspects of the cultural background of the victim.